TheÂ future tenseÂ inÂ ItalianÂ is used to express an action that has yet to happen.
What is Italian Future Tense?
The Italian Future Tense is the equivalent of the English construction with âwillâ and âgoing toâ and is made by changing the final part of the verb. For instance, the simple future tense of parlo (I talk) becomes parlerÃ² (I will talk). There are two future tenses in Italian: Futuro semplice (Simple Future Tense) and Futuro anteriore (Future Perfect) that are used in different situations.
Giorgio arriva oggi. â Giorgio arriverÃ tra un mese.
Giorgio arrives today â Giorgio will arrive next month.
Oggi torno a Roma. â Il mese prossimo tornerÃ² a Roma.
I go back to Rome today â Iâm going back to Rome next month.
When To Use The Italian Future Simple Tense
The Italian futuro semplice and futuro anteriore are used in different situations. The future simple is the easiest to understand. Itâs used to talk about an action that hasnât happened yet.
Pranzeremo alle 13.
Weâll have lunch at 1pm.
SarÃ² in vacanza tra una settimana.
Iâll be on holiday next week.
Se non vuole venire, partirÃ² da solo.
If he doesnât want to come, Iâll go alone.
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How Do I Make The Simple Future Tense In Italian?
You can form the futuro semplice of regular verbs by adding the following endings to the root of the verb, according to the three conjugations:
- -are conjugation: -erÃ², -erai, -erÃ , -eremo, -erete, -eranno
- -ere conjugation: -erÃ², -erai, -erÃ , -eremo, -erete, -eranno
- -ire conjugation: -irÃ², -irai, -irÃ , -iremo, -irete, -iranno
|PARLARE (to talk)
|LEGGERE (to read)
|PARTIRE (to depart)
The Italian futuro semplice (future simple) is usually accompanied by marker words such as:
- domani (tomorrow),
- la prossima settimana (next week),
- tra due/tre mesi (in two/three months).
Simple Future Tense Of The Verbs Essere And Avere
Letâs now see how to conjugate the irregular auxiliary verbs essere and avere in futuro semplice. The Future Simple corresponds to the English: I will be/have, you will be/have, he will be/haveâ¦ and so on:
|AVERE (to have)
Other Uses Of The Simple Future Tense In Italian
Sometimes, in Italian language other situations require the use of the futuro semplice:
You use the future simple to express an orderand make it sound less authoritative and strong than when using the imperative mood.
Mi farai sapere com’Ã¨ andata.
You will tell me how it goes.
Pulirai tu la cucina.
You will clean the kitchen.
Or to express a hypothesis, a doubt or a guess:
Hai lavorato tutto il giorno, sarai stanco.
You worked all day, youâll be (you must be) tired
Sono sicuro che sarete dei bravi genitori.
Iâm sure you will be great as parents
Che ore sono? Saranno le 16.
What time is it? It could be (it will be) 4pm.
The Italian Futuro Anteriore
The Italian futuro anteriore (future perfect tense) generally corresponds to the English construction will be/have + past participle of the verb (i.e. âwill have goneâ).
However, weâll see how you can also find it in other cases where English uses different tenses.
It is formed by using the future simple of one of the auxiliary verbs essere or avere (to be or to have) and then adding the past participle of the verb (participio passato in Italian)
QuandoÂ avrÃ² finitoÂ di fare la doccia, uscirÃ².
When I finish (will have finished) my shower, I’ll go out.
Quando sarai andato via, farÃ² la doccia.
When youâre gone (will be gone), Iâll take a shower.
When Do I Use The Future Perfect Tense In Italian?
The Italian futuro anteriore (future perfect tense) looks similar to the future simple, but its use is different.
There are three cases where you can use the Italian futuro anteriore:
For future actions that will be finished before another action takes place.
Quando avrÃ² finito di mangiare, lo chiamerÃ².
When Iâll finish eating (will have finished eating), Iâll call him.
Quando me ne sarÃ² andato, ti mancherÃ².
When Iâm gone (will be gone), youâll miss me.
Dopo che avrÃ smesso di piovere, usciremo.
When it stops raining (will have stopped raining), weâll go out.
As you can see from the examples, the future perfect tense is formed by two parts:
- the future simple of the auxiliary verb essere/avere and
- the past participle of the verb indicating the action, literally translating as will have finished / will be gone / will have stopped.
However, in some cases where Italian uses future perfect, English just uses future simple (or even past tense!).
The second case where you use the futuro anteriore is to express uncertainty about whether something happened or not, or to make an assumption.
PerchÃ© Marco ha smontato la bici? Si sarÃ accorto che Ã¨ rotta.
Why is Marco taking his bicycle apart? He probably noticed (will probably have noticed) that itâs broken.
Temo che non avrÃ riparato la bici per domani.
Iâm afraid he will not fix (will not have fixed) his bike by tomorrow.
Unlike English, you can even use Future Perfect to make a hypothesis about something that happened in the past and is having consequences on the present moment.
PerchÃ© Ã¨ in ritardo? AvrÃ perso il treno.
Why is he late? Maybe he missed his train.
Paolo era molto nervoso, sarÃ andato male il suo colloquio di lavoro.
Paolo was very nervous, maybe his interview went wrong.
The Italian futuro anteriore can be hard to understand and use correctly.
The second and third case we described are probably the trickiest for English speakers.
No need to worry if you feel confused: remember that to make a hypothesis about something that happened in the past, you can also choose to use other words instead of forming the futuro anteriore, such as âforseÂ â maybe, perhapsâ,Â âmagariÂ â maybeâÂ or âprobabilmenteÂ â probablyâ and use a simpler tense such as passato prossimo.
PerchÃ© Ã¨ in ritardo? Forse ha perso il treno.
Why is he late? Maybe he missed the train.
Paolo era molto nervoso, forse Ã¨ andato male il suo colloquio di lavoro.
Paolo was very nervous, perhaps his interview went wrong.
How Do I Make The Perfect Future Tense In Italian?
Here is the future anteriore (future perfect tense), which is formed by using the future simple of the auxiliary verb essere (to be) or avere (to have) + the past participle of the verb expressing the action:
|PARLARE (to talk)
|LEGGERE (to read)
|PARTIRE (to depart)
When forming the past participle to conjugate the futuro anteriore, the endings of the past participle must change whether it refers to a female, a male or a group of people. The past participle with the verb avere remains unchanged. You will say:
- Lui sarÃ andato â He will be gone
- Lei sarÃ andata â She will be gone
- Noi saremo andati â We will be gone (males)
- Noi saremo andate â We will be gone (females)
- Loro saranno andati â They will be gone (males)
- Loro saranno andate â They will be gone (females)
Perfect Future Tense Of The Verbs Essere And Avere
Letâs now see how to conjugate essere and avere in futuro anteriore.
The futuro anteriore (future perfect) can be literally translated as âwill have beenâ âwill have hadâ:
|AVERE (to have)
|io sarÃ² stato/a
|io avrÃ² avuto
|tu sarai stato/a
|tu avrai avuto
|lui/lei sarÃ stato/a
|lui/lei avrÃ avuto
|noi saremo stati/e
|noi avremo avuto
|voi sarete stati/e
|voi avrete avuto
|loro saranno stati/e
|loro avranno avuto
Other Uses Of The Perfect Future Tense In Italian
Regarding the Italian futuro anteriore (future perfect tense), weâve seen that it can have different uses.
This tense is difficult for mostÂ English-speakersÂ since itâs not common in everyday English.
When Italian uses the futuro anteriore, English speakers can use the future, present or even past tenses:
- Quando avrai mangiato le verdure, ti darÃ² il dessert
When you finish eating your vegetables, I will give you the dessert.
WhenÂ you have finishedÂ eating your vegetables, I will give you the dessert.
If you want to translate this sentence literally, it would be:
- When you will have finished eating your vegetables, I will give you the dessert
To understand the futuro anteriore, you need to think that itâs used to talk about a âpast futureâ event. That is to say, a future event that itâs in the past from the perspective of a later future event. So, from a present point of view it’s a future event, but from the perspective of a later future event, it’s in the past!
Most Common Irregular Verbs In The Simple Future Tense
There are many irregular verbs commonly used in Italian that you need to know if you want to conjugate them correctly. Letâs see first how to form the futuro semplice of irregular verbs. Some irregular verbs drop the vowel at the beginning of the Future Simple suffix. Therefore, when forming futuro semplice the suffixes -erÃ², -erai etc. become -rÃ², -rai, -rÃ , -remo -rete, -ranno. For instance:
- andareÂ (to go):Â andr-Ã², and-rai, and-rÃ , and-remo, and-rete, and-ranno
- avereÂ (to have):Â avr-Ã², av-rai, av-rÃ , av-remo, av-rete, av-ranno
- dovereÂ (to have to):Â dov-rÃ², dov-rai, dov-rÃ , dov-remo, dov-rete, dov-ranno
- potereÂ (to be able to):Â pot-rÃ², pot-rai, pot-rÃ , pot-remo, pot-rete, pot-ranno
- sapereÂ (to know):Â sap-rÃ², sap-rai, sap-rÃ , sap-remo, sap-rete, sap-ranno
- vedereÂ (to see):Â ved-rÃ², ved-rai, ved-rÃ , ved-remo, ved-rete, ved-ranno
- vivereÂ (to live):Â viv-rÃ², viv-rai, viv-rÃ , viv-remo, viv-rete, viv-ranno
Some irregular verbs lose not only their endings, but also part of the root, replacing it with ârrâ. Therefore, the Future Simple suffix becomes -rrÃ², -rrai, -rrÃ , -rremo, -rrete, -rranno.
- Venire (to come) â ve-rrÃ², ve-rrai, ve-rrÃ , ve-rremo, ve-rrete, ve-rranno
- Tenere (to hold) â te-rrÃ², te-rrai, te-rrÃ , te-rremo, te-rrete, te-rranno
- VolereÂ (to want):Â â vo-rrÃ², vo-rrai, vo-rrÃ , vo-rremo, vo-rrete, vo-rranno
- RimanereÂ (to remain): âÂ rima-rrÃ², rima-rrai, rima-rrÃ , rima-rremo, rima-rrete, rima-rranno
Another group of verbs which have their infinitives ending in âcare and âgare, will add an âhâ before the Future Simple suffix, so that -erÃ², -erai, etc. become -herÃ², -herai, -herÃ , -heremo, -herete -heranno. This is done in order to maintain the hard âcâ and âgâ sounds:
- Pagare (to pay) â pag-herÃ², pag-herai â pag-herÃ , pag-heremo, pag-herete, pag-heranno
- Giocare (to play) â gioc-herÃ², gioc-herai, gioc-herÃ , gioc-heremo, gioc-herete, gioc-heranno
Verbs with infinitives ending in -ciare and -giare will drop the -i from the root when forming the Future Simple. So, for the verb mangiare (to eat), you will not say mangierÃ², but mangerÃ².
- Cominciare (to start) â cominc-erÃ², cominc-erai, cominc-erÃ , cominc-eremo, cominc-erete, cominc-eranno
- Mangiare (to eat) â mang-erÃ², mang-erai, mang-erÃ , mang-eremo, mang-erete, mang-eranno
- Lasciare (to leave) â lasc-erÃ², lasc-erai, lasc-erÃ , lasc-eremo, lasc-erete, lasc-eranno
Other irregular verbs have to be studied by heart because they do not follow any grammatical rule:
- Dare (to give) â darÃ², darai, darÃ , daremo, darete, daranno
- Fare (to do/make) âÂ farÃ², farai, farÃ , faremo, farete, faranno
- Stare (to stay) âÂ starÃ², starai, starÃ , staremo, starete, staranno
When forming the futuro anteriore, weâve seen that you need to use the future simple of the irregular auxiliary essere or avere + the past participle of the verb expressing the action.
Remember that some Italian verbs also have irregular past participle, and may not follow the general rule (form ending in -ato, -uto or -ito).
The advice is to always check whether a verb is irregular or not and which auxiliary it needs in a conjugator online, like .
Do I Really Need To Know The Future Tense In Italian?
Sometimes, in Italian you can use the present tense to refer to the future.
This happens in three cases:
When you are talking about something that will surely happen.
Luca parte domani e torna lunedÃ¬ prossimo.
Luca leaves tomorrow and comes back next Monday.
Ci vediamo domani alle 9.
Weâll meet tomorrow at 9.
Sei andato in banca? No, vado martedÃ¬.
Did you go to the bank? No, Iâll go on Tuesday.
To talk about something that you are about to do.
Esco e vado a prendere il latte.
Iâm going out to buy milk.
Lascia stare, pago io.
Leave it, Iâll pay.
Io prendo un cappuccino.
Iâll have a cappuccino.
Shall I go?
Apro la finestra?
Shall I open the window?
Shall I call her?
For the futuro anteriore keep in mind that in everyday language itâs not wrong to use the futuro semplice instead of the futuroÂ anteriore.
Quando Francesca arriverÃ , pranzeremo.
When Francesca arrives (will arrive), weâll have lunch.
Quando smetterÃ di piovere, uscirÃ².
When itâll stop raining, Iâll go out.
You can see that for some upcoming events, especially those that will happen shortly, Italians simply use the present tense.
However, itâs very useful to know how to form the future tense in Italian.
Now that you know how to use the Italian future tense, you can talk with your friends or family about your plans or future travels, hopefully in Italy!